This README file contains important information about Turbo
  Assembler Version 2.0. For the latest information about
  Turbo Assembler 2.0, the accompanying programs, and the manual,
  read this file in its entirety. The UPDATE.DOC file contains
  information on the new features in Turbo Assembler version 2.0.
  The HELPME!.DOC file answers many common Technical Support

1.  How to Get Help
2.  Installation
3.  Important Notes
4.  Files on the Disks


  If you have any problems, please read this file, HELPME!.DOC,
  UPDATE.DOC, and the Turbo Assembler manuals first. If you still
  have a question and need assistance, help is available from the
  following sources:

  1. Type GO BOR on the CompuServe bulletin board system for
     instant access to the Borland forums with their libraries of
     technical information and answers to common questions.

     If you are not a member of CompuServe, see the enclosed
     special offer, and write for full details on how to receive
     a free IntroPak containing a $15 credit toward your first
     month's online charges.

  2. Check with your local software dealer or users' group.

  3. Write to us at the following address:

     Borland International
     Turbo Assembler Technical Support
     1800 Green Hills Road
     P.O. Box 660001
     Scotts Valley, CA  95066-0001

     Please remember to include your serial number or we will be
     unable to process your letter.

  4. If you have an urgent problem that cannot wait and you have
     sent in the license agreement, you may call the Borland
     Technical Support Department at (408) 438-5300 Monday through
     Friday between the hours of 6 a.m. and 5 p.m. Pacific Time.
     Please have the following information ready before calling:

     a. Product name and serial number on your original
        distribution disk. Please have your serial number ready
        or we will be unable to process your call.

     b. Product version number. The version number for Turbo
        Assembler is displayed when you run the program.

     c. Computer brand, model, and the brands and model numbers
        of any additional hardware.

     d. Operating system and version number. (The version number
        can be determined by typing VER at the DOS prompt.)

     e. Contents of your AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files.


  You should read the rest of this README file to get further
  information about this release before you do the installation.

  The Turbo Assembler/INSTALLATION disk contains a program called
  INSTALL.EXE that will assist you with the installation of Turbo
  Assembler 2.0.

  To start the installation, change your current drive to the one
  that has the install program on it and type INSTALL. You will
  be given instructions in a box at the bottom of the screen for
  each prompt. For example, if you will be installing from drive
  A:, type

    A: <Enter>
    INSTALL <Enter>

  If you have difficulty reading the text displayed by the INSTALL
  program, use the /B command-line parameter to force it to use
  black and white colors:

    a:install /B      - Forces INSTALL into BW80 mode

  Specifying the /B parameter may be necessary if you are using an
  LCD screen or a system that has a color graphics adapter and a
  monochrome or composite monitor.

  Notes for installation:

    INSTALL copies all Turbo Assembler files onto your hard disk
    and puts them into subdirectories. The default subdirectories

      Turbo Assembler Directory:                   C:\TASM
      Examples Subdirectory:                       C:\TASM

  By default, all files from the distribution disks are placed in
  the Turbo Assembler Directory. If you would rather separate the
  examples programs into their own subdirectory, edit the default
  example files path before selecting START INSTALLATION.

  The Turbo Assembler distribution disks contain several files
  with a .ZIP file extension: TASM.ZIP, MANUAL.ZIP, etc. These
  files contain one or more other files that have been compressed
  and placed inside an archive. You can de-archive them yourself
  by using the UNZIP.EXE utility. For example,

    unzip /o tasm

  unpacks all the files stored in the TASM.ZIP archive into the
  current directory.

  INSTALL gives you a choice of copying the .ZIP files intact or
  de-archiving and copying all the individual files onto your hard
  disk during the installation process.


o Updated QUIRKS mode list
    The following apply to QUIRKS mode:
    1)  NEAR or SHORT jumps are generated even if FAR is specified,
        if source and destination segments are the same.
    2)  Type checking for some two-argument instructions is disabled,
        for example, MOV ES,BYTEPTR is allowed.
    3)  Forces an EQU to an expression with PTR in it to be a text
    4)  Forces an EQU to an expression with : in it to be a
        text macro. 
    5)  Forces an EQU to an expression with OFFSET in it to be a text
    6)  Forces SHL operator to lose track of sign info.
    7)  Forces numeric equates (= or numeric EQU) to lose complex
        expression information such as segment, fixup type.
    8)  Reduces priority of GLOBAL, UNION keywords so that they may
        be overridden.
    9)  Causes warning instead of error to be generated if the second
        argument is missing in a two-argument instruction.
    10) Allows REPT without argument to be interpreted as REPT 0.
    11) Disables test for extra stuff on line after IF conditional.
    The following apply to QUIRKS with MASM51:
    1)  @@, @F, and @B are enabled.
    2)  Trailing language ID after NEAR or FAR in procedure
        declaration is allowed.
    3)  All procedure symbols are published globally.
    4)  :: label definitions are allowed.

o MASM compatibility pass

    Using TASM's /m command-line switch will generate a MASM-style
    second pass (compatibility pass) when the following
    constructions are present:

      o IF1 and IF2 directives
      o .ERR1 and .ERR2 directives
      o ELSEIF1 and ELSEIF2 directives
      o Forward references with IFDEF or IFNDEF
      o Forward references with the .TYPE operator
      o Recursively defined numbers (FOO=FOO+1)
      o Forward-referenced or recursively defined text macros 
          (FOO CATSTR FOO,<1>) 
      o Forward referenced macros

    The execution of the compatibility pass effectively disables
    the advantages associated with Turbo Assembler's multiple pass

o Updated example files

    The WHEREIS example file has been updated to reflect some of
    the new TASM 2.0 features. In addition, IWHGLOBL.INC and
    have been changed to remove the warning message "Global type
    doesn't match symbol type."

o SMART/NOSMART directives

    One of the optimizations that TASM 2.0 performs is to change
    FAR calls to an address in the same segment into a PUSH CS
    followed by a CALL NEAR.  Any FAR procedures that have an
    EXTRN definition declared inside a segment are considered to
    be in that segment, and TASM will generate the PUSH CS, CALL
    NEAR instructions for them.  To avoid this, put a procedure's
    EXTRN definition inside of a segment only if the procedure
    is actually in that segment, or put NOSMART and SMART
    directives around calls to the procedure in that segment.

o Turbo Assembler 2.0 Reference Guide corrections

    P. 187  In the section titled "Examples," make the following

      prog.exe: myprog.asm prog2.asm include\stdio.inc
      tasm /t myprog.asm   # Recompile myprog using Turbo Assembler
      tasm /t prog2.asm # Recompile prog2 using Turbo Assembler
      tlink myprog prog2, prog

        Here are some better examples:

        prog.exe: myprog.obj prog2.obj
        tlink myprog prog2, prog

        myprog.obj: myprog.asm include\stdio.inc
        tasm myprog.asm

        prog2.obj: prog2.asm include\stdio.inc
        tasm prog2.asm

P. 196  The directives in Table D.1 should be uppercase.

P. 212  Ignore the second paragraph under the section "Turbo Link";
        TASM does not call TLINK.


  INSTALL  EXE  -  Turbo Assembler installation program
  README   COM  -  Reads this README
  UNZIP    EXE  -  Program to unzip the .ZIP files
  TASM     ZIP  -  Turbo Assembler 2.0 and Utilities
    TASM     EXE  -  Turbo Assembler 2.0
    TLINK    EXE  -  Borland Turbo Linker
    MAKE     EXE  -  Program for managing projects
    GREP     COM  -  Turbo GREP program
    TCREF    EXE  -  Turbo Assembler cross-reference utility
    OBJXREF  COM  -  Object file cross-reference utility
    TOUCH    COM  -  Program that updates a file's date and time
    TLIB     EXE  -  Borland Turbo Librarian

  MANUAL   ZIP  -  Turbo Assembler 2.0 Documentation files.
    UPDATE   DOC  -  Complete description of new TASM 2.0 features
    UTIL     DOC  -  Updated information on the TASM 2.0 utilities
    HELPME!  DOC  -  Text file with the answers to many common
                     questions. Please read HELPME!.DOC before
                     contacting Technical Support
    BASIC    DOC  -  Interfacing Turbo Assembler with Turbo Basic
    PROLOG   DOC  -  Interfacing Turbo Assembler with Turbo Prolog

  MMACROS  ZIP  -  MASM Mode Macros
    BIOS     INC  -  Equates representing the BIOS services
    DOS      INC  -  Equates representing the DOS services
    KBD      INC  -  Equates representing the IBM PC keyboard keystrokes
    MBIOS    MAC  -  Macros used to interface with the IBM PC BIOS. 
                     MASM Mode
    MDOS     MAC  -  Macros to interface with DOS. MASM Mode
    MMACROS  MAC  -  General macros. MASM Mode

  README        -  This file

  TAEXMPL1 ZIP  -  Ideal mode example and macros
    BIOS     INC  -  Equates representing the BIOS services
    BIOSMAC  DOC  -  Documentation for macros implemented in ?BIOS.MAC
    DEMO1    BAT  -  Batch file to make Whereis.exe
    DOS      INC  -  Equates representing the DOS services
    DOSMAC   DOC  -  Documentation for macros implemented in ?DOS.MAC
    IASCIIZS ASM  -  Routine to display an ASCIIZ string
    IBIOS    MAC  -  Ideal mode macros used to interface with the 
                     IBM PC BIOS
    IBYTECPY ASM  -  Routine that copies an array of bytes from one
                     location to another
    IDELCHAR ASM  -  Routine that deletes n characters from a
                     Pascal-style string starting at position i
    IDOS     INC  -  Type declarations used to interface with DOS
    IDOS     MAC  -  Macros to interface with DOS. Ideal Mode
    IEXECDOS ASM  -  Routines to handle calling DOS to perform a
                     command on a file
    IFINDBYT ASM  -  Routine that searches an array of bytes, looking
                     for a value; routine that returns the length of
                     an ASCIIZ string.
    IFINDFIL ASM  -  Routine that does a recursive search of a hard disk
                     looking for a file
    IFINDREP ASM  -  Routine that searches through an array of
                     bytes, replacing all instances of a value
                     with another value.
    ILOCSTRG ASM  -  Routine that searches through memory looking
                     for the nth Pascal-style string
    IMACROS  MAC  -  General macros. Ideal Mode
    IPARAM   ASM  -  Routines to return the # of command-line
                     parameters and the contents of an individual
    IPARSEFN ASM  -  Routine that parses a file name into Drive,
                     Path, and File spec
    ISKPWHIT ASM  -  Routine to advance a pointer past any whitespace
                     in an array of bytes
    IWHEREIS ASM  -  Main module for Whereis program
    IWHGLOBL INC  -  Global declarations for Whereis
    IWRITEPS ASM  -  Routine to display a Pascal-style string
    KBD      INC  -  Equates representing the IBM PC keyboard keystrokes
    WHEREIS  DOC  -  Documentation for Whereis file locator program
    WHEREIS  MAK  -  Make file for creating Whereis.exe using the Make
    WHUSAGE  INC  -  Usage screen text

  TAEXMPL2 ZIP  -  FILT and standard segmentation (SHOW87) examples
    CONVERT1 INC  -  Converts from binary numbers to strings
    CONVERT2 INC  -  Converts from floating point to integer numbers
    DEMO3    BAT  -  Batch file to make Filt.exe text filter program
    DEMO2    BAT  -  Batch file to build Show87
    FILT     ASM  -  Text filter main file
    FILT     DOC  -  Documentation file for Filt.exe text filter
    FILT     MAK  -  Make file for creating Filt.exe using the
                     make utility
    FILT     RSP  -  Linker response file for linking Filt.exe
    GLOBALS  INC  -  Declares procedures and symbols needed by
                     the modules of FILT
    OBYTEHI  ASM  -  Processes the current high byte value in AL
    OBYTELOW ASM  -  Processes the current low byte value in AL
    OBYTENRM ASM  -  Processes the current normal byte value in AL
    OCMDNUM  ASM  -  Parses the command line
    OERREXIT ASM  -  Handles the printing of error messages
    OFCREATE ASM  -  Creates or truncates a file; the file is opened
                     for writing
    OFILALOC ASM  -  Allocates a read/write buffer
    OFILCLOS ASM  -  Closes a file
    OFILEFIL ASM  -  Fills a read buffer
    OFILFREE ASM  -  Deallocates a read/write buffer
    OFILREAD ASM  -  Reads from a file
    OFILWRIT ASM  -  Writes to a file
    OFLFLUSH ASM  -  Flushes the write buffer
    OFOPENR  ASM  -  Opens a file for reading
    OFOPENW  ASM  -  Opens a file for writing
    OLOCASE  ASM  -  Routine converts a letter to lowercase
    OPARSCMD ASM  -  Parses the command line
    OPRCBYTE ASM  -  Processes a byte
    OPROCDOC ASM  -  Processes an entire document, one line at a time
    OPROCLIN ASM  -  Processes a line
    OSETOPTN ASM  -  Sets options for FILT
    OSPACES  ASM  -  Stores a specified number of spaces at
                     particular location
    OSTORSPC ASM  -  Stores any currently stored spaces
    OSTORTAB ASM  -  Stores a tab character if there are any spaces
                     to compress
    OTABCLR  ASM  -  Clears all tab stops
    OTABNEXT ASM  -  Returns the number of spaces to the next tab stop
    OTABRSET ASM  -  Sets tab stops every eight columns
    OTABSET  ASM  -  Sets a tab stop at a specified column location
    OUPCASE  ASM  -  Converts a letter to uppercase
    SHOW87   ASM  -  Standard Segmentation Demo Program
    SHOW87   DOC  -  Documentation for Show87 8087 register display
    VIDEO1   INC  -  Routines to display text and control the screen
    VIDEO2   INC  -  Routines to display formatted text strings

  CHAPXMPL ZIP  -  Example Programs from the Manual

     Note: This file is not automatically unzipped when Turbo Assembler
           is installed to a hard disk. To unzip these files you
           will first need to switch to the drive and
           subdirectory containing this file and then give the

           unzip /o chapxmpl

    Example         Pre-2.0 Doc        2.0 Doc
    HELLO    ASM  -  Pg   9             Pg   11
    HELLO2   ASM  -  Pg  13             Pg   15
    HELLOPRN ASM  -  Pg  15             Pg   17
    REVERSE  ASM  -  Pg  16             Pg   18
    ECHOCHAR ASM  -  Pg  55             Pg   72
    MODCHAR  ASM  -  Pg  80             Pg   78
    DELAY    ASM  -  Pg  88             Pg   87
    DSLYSTR  ASM  -  Pg 109             Pg  105
    USE_ES   ASM  -  Pg 110             Pg  107
    STDSEG   ASM  -  Pg 115             Pg  111
    STRINGS  ASM  -  Pg 132             Pg  127
    PRNTSTR  ASM  -  Pg 175             Pg  163
    CNTWORDS ASM  -  Pg 181             Pg  168
    MAIN     ASM  -  Pg 207             Pg  191
    SUB1     ASM  -  Pg 208             Pg  191
    PLUSONE  C    -  Pg 282             Pg  262
    SQRETBLE C    -  Pg 287             Pg  266
    SQRTBLE2 C    -  Pg 287             Pg  266
    STRINGUP C    -  Pg 293             Pg  271
    DOTOTAL  ASM  -  Pg 305             Pg  283
    SHOWTOT  C    -  Pg 306             Pg  284
    DOTOTAL2 ASM  -  Pg 307             Pg  285
    TOGLFLAG C    -  Pg 313             Pg  290
    TOGFLAG  ASM  -  Pg 313             Pg  290
    COUNT    ASM  -  Pg 327             Pg  304
    CALLCT   C    -  Pg 328             Pg  305
    COUNTLG  ASM  -  Pg 329             Pg  305
    CALCAVG  C    -  Pg 334             Pg  311
    AVERAGE  ASM  -  Pg 334             Pg  312
    SAMPLE   PAS  -  Pg 344             Pg  322
    ASMPROC  ASM  -  Pg 344             Pg  322
    TSAMPLE  PAS  -  Pg 345             Pg  323
    HEXSTR   ASM  -  Pg 357             Pg  334
    HEXTEST  PAS  -  Pg 358             Pg  336
    XCHANGE  ASM  -  Pg 360             Pg  337
    XCHANGE  PAS  -  Pg 361             Pg  338
    ENVSTR   ASM  -  Pg 362             Pg  340
    ENVTEST  PAS  -  Pg 364             Pg  342
    SCROLLH  PRO  -  Pg 387             see Prolog.doc
    SCROL    ASM  -  Pg 388             see Prolog.doc
    MYPROLOG PRO  -  Pg 391             see Prolog.doc
    MYASM    ASM  -  Pg 391             see Prolog.doc
    ADDPRO   PRO  -  Pg 393             see Prolog.doc
    ADD      ASM  -  Pg 393             see Prolog.doc
    SHOWMESS PRO  -  Pg 395             see Prolog.doc
    FROM_ASM ASM  -  Pg 395             see Prolog.doc
    SHOWNEW  PRO  -  Pg 396             see Prolog.doc
    FROM_NEW ASM  -  Pg 396             see Prolog.doc
    FUNC     PRO  -  Pg 398             see Prolog.doc
    IFUNC    ASM  -  Pg 398             see Prolog.doc
    MULT_C&D ASM  -  Pg 469             Pg  404
    PRIMES   ASM  -  Pg 521             Pg  449
    MASEXMPL ASM  -  Pg 548             Pg  476
    IDLEXMPL ASM  -  Pg 549             Pg  477

  THELP    ZIP  -  Turbo Help files for Turbo Assembler 2.0
    THELP    COM  -  Borland Turbo Help
    TASM     TAH  -  Turbo Assembler Help text file
    THELP    DOC  -  Information about THELP.COM

  TFEXMPL2 ZIP  -  Turbo Profiler example files
    PRIME0   C
    PRIME0   EXE
    PRIME1   C
    PRIME1   EXE
    PRIME2   C
    PRIME2   EXE
    PRIME3   C
    PRIME3   EXE
    PRIME4   C
    PRIME4   EXE
    PRIME5   C
    PRIME5   EXE
    PRIME6   C
    PRIME6   EXE

  TFHELP   ZIP  -  Turbo Help file for Turbo Profiler 1.0

NOTE: If you have the 3.5" version of Turbo Assembler, you can
      find all files on one disk.