WELCOME TO TURBO ASSEMBLER 1.01

This README file contains important, last minute information
about Turbo Assembler 1.01. The HELPME!.DOC file on the TURBO
ASSEMBLER/INSTALLATION disk also answers many common Technical
Support questions.


  1. How to Get Help
  2. Installation
  3. Important Notes
  4. New Features
  5. Manual Additions and Corrections
  6. Files on the Disks


  If you have any problems, please read this file, the HELPME!.DOC
  file, and the Turbo Assembler manuals first. If you still have a
  question and need assistance, help is available from the following

  1. Type GO BOR on the CompuServe bulletin board system for
     instant access to the Borland forums with their libraries of
     technical information and answers to common questions.

     If you are not a member of CompuServe, see the enclosed special
     offer, and write for full details on how to receive a free
     IntroPak containing a $15 credit toward your first month's on-
     line charges.

  2. Check with your local software dealer or users' group.

  3. Write to us at the following address:

     Borland International
     Turbo Assembler Technical Support
     1800 Green Hills Road
     P.O. Box 660001
     Scotts Valley, CA  95066-0001

     Please remember to include your serial number or we will be
     unable to process your letter.

  4. If you have an urgent problem that cannot wait and you have sent
     in the license agreement from the front of your manual, you may
     call the Borland Technical Support Department at (408) 438-5300.
     Please have the following information ready before calling:

     a. Product name and serial number on your original distribution
        disk.  Please have your serial number ready or we will be
        unable to process your call.

     b. Product version number. The version number for Turbo Assembler
        is displayed when you run the program.

     c. Computer brand, model, and the brands and model numbers of any
        additional hardware.

     d. Operating system and version number. (The version number can
        be determined by typing VER at the MSDOS prompt.)

     e. Contents of your AUTOEXEC.BAT file.

     f. Contents of your CONFIG.SYS file.


  This disk contains a program called INSTALL.EXE that will
  assist you with the installation of Turbo Assembler 1.01. There
  are two options for installation:

  1. Hard Disk - This option allows you to pick the subdirectories
     where the files will be loaded.

  2. Floppy Disk - This option will install the files necessary to
     use Turbo Assembler on a two-drive system.  Be sure to have
     four formatted disks ready before you start.

  To start the installation, change your current drive to the one
  that has the install program on it and type INSTALL.  You will
  be given instructions in a box at the bottom of the screen for
  each prompt. For example, if you will be installing from drive
  A:, type


  You should read the rest of this README file to get further
  information about this release before you do the installation.


  o Additional tips and answers to many common questions will be found
    in the text file HELPME!.DOC, which has been installed to the same
    location as this file (README). You can use the README.COM utility
    to view the HELPME!.DOC file by giving the following command:


  o If you will be running INSTALL on a laptop or any other system
    that uses an LCD display, you should set your system into black
    and white mode before running INSTALL. You can do this from DOS
    with the following command line:

      mode bw80

    or, you can force INSTALL to come up in black and white mode by
    using the /b switch:

      install /b

  o Changed Switches for OBJXREF:

    The /O option (object files directory) has been changed to
    the /D (directories) option. The switch now allows for
    multiple search directories to be specified. The new syntax

     OBJXREF /Ddir1[;dir2[;dir3]]


     OBJXREF /Ddir1 [/Ddir2] [/Ddir3]

    OBJXREF will search each of the directories in the specified
    order for all object and library files. If no /D option is
    used, only the current directory will be searched. However,
    if a /D option is used, the current directory will NOT be
    searched unless it is included in the directory list. For
    example, to first search the BORLAND directory for files and
    then search the current directory, you would type

      OBJXREF /Dborland;.

    If multiple search directories are specified and a file
    matching the file specification is found, OBJXREF will
    include the file as part of the cross-reference. OBJXREF will
    only continue to search the other directories for the same
    file specification if the file specification contains

    A new option has been added to allow you to specify an output
    file where OBJXREF will send any reports generated. The new
    option is the /O option, and it has the following syntax:

      OBJXREF myfile.obj /RU /Ofilename.ext

    By default, all output is sent to the console.

  o Turbo Linker (TLINK) Notes:

    1) When linking with the /V option, TLINK will initialize all
    segments. If you have a program that runs differently when
    linked with debug information, you have an uninitialized
    variable somewhere.

    2) TLINK loads last any segments of class 'STACK' even if
    they are part of DGROUP.


  o Listing files generated with /LA will now contain the mnemonics for
    the opcodes inserted as a result of the use of high level language
    directives. The listing is changed only for things that actually
    generate code such as the first instruction of a PROC with arguments.
    The listing of things such as .MODEL, .CODE, and other instructions
    that do not actually generate any code will not be changed. /LA also
    overrides other directives that turn off listing. If certain parts
    of listing need to be supressed use /L instead of /LA.

  o If a string is defined with a DB instruction, and a comma is the
    last thing on the line, a null byte will be assumed at the end of
    the string. A warning will be generated. For example:

    db 'ABCDEF',

    will generate the following, with a warning "Trailing null assumed"

    41 42 43 44 45 46 00

  o If a structure instance does not have any initializer specified
    the "Trailing null assumed" warning will be generated. No extra
    zeros are placed in the emitted code.

  o Segment alignment and padding now match MASM.

  o Confusion about certain features of TYPE used in IDEAL
    mode should be cleared up by the following addition to the

       Function  Returns a number indicating the size of a symbol
                 (Masm mode), or returns the type of a  symbol 
                 (Ideal mode)

       Mode      MASM, Ideal

       Syntax    Masm mode: TYPE <expression>
                 Ideal mode:  TYPE <symbol>

       Remarks   Masm mode:
                 (Keep discussion as exists now)

                 Ideal mode:
                     TYPE is used to get the type of an
                     existing symbol.  In Ideal mode, this
                     operation can only be used where a type
                     specifier is needed.

       Example   Masm mode:
                     (Keep discussion as exists now)

                 Ideal mode:



                     bvar    db 1    ;Byte storage.
                     tempvr  dt ?    ;Scratch area.


                     mov     [bvar],0 ;Clear byte variable.
                     mov     [type bvar ptr tempvr],0
                                      ;Clear scratch area of 
                                      ;same size.
                                      ;Equivalent to 'BYTE PTR'.

  o TED.ASM from PCMAGNET will now assemble and link properly. Be
    sure to use the /t switch with TLINK to produce a .COM file.

  o Existence of ">" character within a string passed to IFB macro
    directive causes TASM 1.0 to report that extra characters are
    on line. This will now be handled without an error if QUIRKS
    directive is used. All characters past the embedded ">" will
    be ignored.

  o Colons within label names passed to IFDEF macro directive
    are now ignored if QUIRKS directive is used. All characters
    past the colon are ignored.

  o In tiny model programs, all registers should be pointing to the
    same DGROUP. If unwanted SS: overrides occur when referencing
    variables in the DGROUP, use the statement ASSUME SS:NOTHING to
    causes CS: overrides to be used.


  Turbo Assembler User's Guide

  For your convenience, many of the examples are provided on the dis-
  tribution diskettes. Consult the files listed at the bottom of the
  README file for their names and the page on which the example appears.

  Turbo Assembler Reference Guide

  All references to P386P and P286P are incorrect. These do not exist.

  Please see pages 403 and 404 of the User's Guide for a discussion
  of the following line-segment override directives:


  53 - Add the % directive, which is a one-line macro that uses
       all current text macros as possible arguments.

  74 - Change the number in the first bulleted item from
       4,294,967,295 to 2,147,483,647.

  76 - The DISPLAY directive is available in both MASM and Ideal

       You may use the substitute operator inside a string passed
       to the DISPLAY directive. For example,

         MAKE_DATA macro VALUE
                   display "Initializing a byte to: &VALUE&"
                   db VALUE

  77 - In DQ, change the numeric range in the first bulleted item
       from -2^64+1 to 2^64-1.

  79 - The number in the first bulleted item on the page should
       be 32,767, not 65,536.

 131 - Note that %NOTRUNC is the default mode when Turbo Assembler
       starts assembling a file.

 151 - The example for the STRUC directive should have
             MODEL SMALL
       instead of the .MODEL SMALL.


  INSTALL  EXE  -  Installation program
  README   COM  -  Reads this README
  TASM     EXE  -  Turbo Assembler
  TCREF    EXE  -  Turbo Assembler cross-reference utility
  MAKE     EXE  -  Program for managing projects
  TLINK    EXE  -  Borland Turbo Linker
  TLIB     EXE  -  Borland Turbo Librarian
  OBJXREF  COM  -  Object file cross-reference utility
  GREP     COM  -  Turbo GREP program
  TOUCH    COM  -  Program that updates a file's date and time
  HELPME!  DOC  -  Text file with the answers to many common
                   questions. Please read HELPME!.DOC before
                   contacting Technical Support
  README        -  This file
  MMACROS  ARC  -  MASM Mode Macros

    BIOS.INC    -  Equates representing the BIOS services
    DOS.INC     -  Equates representing the DOS services
    KBD.INC     -  Equates representing the IBM PC keyboard keystrokes
    MBIOS.MAC   -  Macros used to interface with the IBM PC BIOS. MASM Mode
    MDOS.MAC    -  Macros to interface with DOS. MASM Mode
    MMACROS.MAC -  General macros. Masm Mode

  This diskette also contains files for use with the Turbo Debugger.
  Please see the Turbo Debugger README and manuals for a complete
  description of these files.

  TDCONVRT EXE  -  Turbo Debugger utility
  TDPACK   EXE  -  Turbo Debugger utility
  TDNMI    COM  -  Turbo Debugger utility
  UNPACK   COM  -  Program to unpack the .ARC files
  TDEXMPL  ARC  -  Packed file that contains Turbo Debugger examples
  TAEXMPL1 ARC  -  Ideal mode example and macros

    BIOS.INC     - Equates representing the BIOS services
    BIOSMAC.DOC  - Documentation for macros implemented in ?BIOS.MAC
    DEMO1.BAT    - Batch file to make Whereis.exe
    DOS.INC      - Equates representing the DOS services
    DOSMAC.DOC   - Documentation for macros implemented in ?DOS.MAC
    IASCIIZS.ASM - Routine to display an ASCIIZ string
    IBIOS.MAC    - Ideal mode macros used to interface with the IBM PC BIOS
    IBYTECPY.ASM - Routine that copies an array of bytes from one
                   location to another
    IDELCHAR.ASM - Routine that deletes n characters from a
                   Pascal-style string starting at position i
    IDOS.INC     - Type declarations used to interface with DOS
    IDOS.MAC     - Macros to interface with DOS. Ideal Mode
    IFINDBYT.ASM - Routine that searches an array of bytes, looking for a
                   value; routine that returns the length of an ASCIIZ string.
    IFINDFIL.ASM - Routine that does a recursive search of a hard disk
                   looking for a file
    IFINDREP.ASM - Routine that searches through an array of bytes,
                   replacing all instances of a value with another value.
    ILOCSTRG.ASM - Routine that searches through memory looking for the
                   nth Pascal-style string
    IMACROS.MAC  - General macros. Ideal Mode
    IPARAM.ASM   - Routines to return the # of command-line parameters and
                   the contents of an individual parameter
    IPARSEFN.ASM - Routine that parses a file name into Drive,
                   Path, and File spec
    ISKPWHIT.ASM - Routine to advance a pointer past any whitespace in
                   an array of bytes
    IWHEREIS.ASM - Main module for Whereis program
    IWHGLOBL.INC - Global declarations for Whereis
    IWRITEPS.ASM - Routine to display a Pascal-style string
    KBD.INC      - Equates representing the IBM PC keyboard keystrokes
    WHEREIS.DOC  - Documentation for Whereis file locator program
    WHEREIS.MAK  - Make file for creating Whereis.exe using the Make utility
    WHUSAGE.INC  - Usage screen text

  TAEXMPL2 ARC  -  Simplified (FILT) and standard segmentation (SHOW87)

    CONVERT1.INC - Converts from binary numbers to strings
    CONVERT2.INC - Converts from floating point to integer numbers
    DEMO3.BAT    - Batch file to make Filt.exe text filter program
    DEMO2.BAT    - Batch file to build Show87
    FILT.ASM     - Text filter main file
    FILT.DOC     - Documentation file for Filt.exe text filter program
    FILT.MAK     - Make file for creating Filt.exe using the make utility
    FILT.RSP     - Linker response file for linking Filt.exe
    GLOBALS.INC  - Declares procedures and symbols needed by the modules
                   of FILT
    OBYTEHI.ASM  - Processes the current high byte value in AL
    OBYTELOW.ASM - Processes the current low byte value in AL
    OBYTENRM.ASM - Processes the current normal byte value in AL
    OCMDNUM.ASM  - Parses the command line
    OERREXIT.ASM - Handles the printing of error messages
    OFCREATE.ASM - Creates or truncates a file; the file is opened
                   for writing
    OFILALOC.ASM - Allocates a read/write buffer
    OFILCLOS.ASM - Closes a file
    OFILEFIL.ASM - Fills a read buffer
    OFILFREE.ASM - Deallocates a read/write buffer
    OFILREAD.ASM - Reads from a file
    OFILWRIT.ASM - Writes to a file
    OFLFLUSH.ASM - Flushes the write buffer
    OFOPENR.ASM  - Opens a file for reading
    OFOPENW.ASM  - Opens a file for writing
    OLOCASE.ASM  - Routine converts a letter to lowercase
    OPARSCMD.ASM - Parses the command line
    OPRCBYTE.ASM - Processes a byte
    OPROCDOC.ASM - Processes an entire document, one line at a time
    OPROCLIN.ASM - Processes a line
    OSETOPTN.ASM - Sets input buffer size; sets output buffer
                   size; sets the byte to end lines; clears all
                   tab stops; sets a tab stop; truncates lines to
                   a specified length; sets the left margin;
                   deletes the left margin; displays a help
    OSPACES.ASM  - Stores a specified number of spaces at
                   particular location
    OSTORSPC.ASM - Stores any currently stored spaces
    OSTORTAB.ASM - Stores a tab character if there are any spaces
                   to compress
    OTABCLR.ASM  - Clears all tab stops
    OTABNEXT.ASM - Returns the number of spaces to the next tab stop
    OTABRSET.ASM - Sets tap stops every eight columns
    OTABSET.ASM  - Sets a tap stop at a specified column location
    OUPCASE.ASM  - Converts a letter to uppercase
    SHOW87.ASM   - Standard Segmentation Demo Program
    SHOW87.DOC   - Documentation for Show87 8087 register display
    VIDEO1.INC   - Routines to display text and control the screen
    VIDEO2.INC   - Routines to display formatted text strings

  CHAPXMPL ARC  -  Example Programs from the Manual

     Note: This file is not automatically unpacked when Turbo Assembler
           is installed to a hard disk. To unpack these files you will
           first need to switch to the drive and subdirectory containing
           this file and then give the command

           unpack /r chapxmpl

    HELLO.ASM    - Pg   9
    HELLO2.ASM   - Pg  13
    HELLOPRN.ASM - Pg  15
    REVERSE.ASM  - Pg  16
    ECHOCHAR.ASM - Pg  55
    MODCHAR.ASM  - Pg  80
    DELAY.ASM    - Pg  88
    DSLYSTR.ASM  - Pg 109
    USE_ES.ASM   - Pg 110
    STDSEG.ASM   - Pg 115
    STRINGS.ASM  - Pg 132
    PRNTSTR.ASM  - Pg 175
    CNTWORDS.ASM - Pg 181
    MAIN.ASM     - Pg 207
    SUB1.ASM     - Pg 208
    PLUSONE.C    - Pg 282
    PLUSONE.ASM  - Pg 283
    SQRETBLE.C   - Pg 287
    SQRTBLE2.C   - Pg 287
    STRINGUP.C   - Pg 293
    DOTOTAL.ASM  - Pg 305
    SHOWTOT.C    - Pg 306
    DOTOTAL2.ASM - Pg 307
    TOGLFLAG.C   - Pg 313
    TOGFLAG.ASM  - Pg 313
    CALLCT.C     - Pg 328
    COUNT.ASM    - Pg 327
    COUNTLG.ASM  - Pg 329
    CALCAVG.C    - Pg 334
    AVERAGE.ASM  - Pg 334
    SAMPLE.PAS   - Pg 344
    ASMPROC.ASM  - Pg 344
    TSAMPLE.PAS  - Pg 345
    HEXTEST.PAS  - Pg 358
    HEXSTR.ASM   - Pg 357
    XCHANGE.PAS  - Pg 361
    XCHANGE.ASM  - Pg 360
    ENVTEST.PAS  - Pg 364
    ENVSTR.ASM   - Pg 362
    SCROLLH.PRO  - Pg 387
    SCROL.ASM    - Pg 388
    MYPROLOG.PRO - Pg 391
    MYASM.ASM    - Pg 391
    ADDPRO.PRO   - Pg 393
    ADD.ASM      - Pg 393
    SHOWMESS.PRO - Pg 395
    FROM_ASM.ASM - Pg 395
    SHOWNEW.PRO  - Pg 396
    FROM_NEW.ASM - Pg 396
    FUNC.PRO     - Pg 398
    IFUNC.ASM    - Pg 398
    MULT_C&D.ASM - Pg 469
    PRIMES.ASM   - Pg 521
    MASEXMPL.ASM - Pg 548
    IDLEXMPL.ASM - Pg 549