Microsoft(R) Macro Assembler Package
                              Version 5.10
                   Copyright 1988, Microsoft Corporation

Text files on the Macro Assembler disks are tabbed to save
disk space. If your printer does not automatically handle
tabs during printing, you must use a print program that
expands tabs. For example, use the DOS PRINT program to print
this and other document or source files on the disk.

                The Microsoft Macro Assembler (MASM)

Mixed-Language Support for Variables and Procedures
All EXTRN, PUBLIC, and PROC items, as well as uses of the .MODEL
directive, support a language type.  The language type of EXTRN
and PUBLIC variables determine whether or not an underscore is
prefixed to the name (an underscore is prefixed only for variables
with a C language type), and the language type of a procedure determines
its calling and naming conventions.  For an explanation of calling
and naming conventions, see the Microsoft Mixed-Language Programming

The language type consists of the word "C" or "Pascal" and uses the
following syntax (lowercase items are placeholders, and bracketed items
are optional):

EXTRN [<langtype>] <varname>:<type>
PUBLIC [<langtype>] <varname>
procName PROC [NEAR|FAR] [<langtype>] [USES <regs>,] <args>

For example, the C and Pascal keywords are used correctly in the
following example:

        .MODEL  SMALL,C
        EXTRN   Pascal DosOpen:FAR
        PUBLIC  C myVar
myOpen  PROC    Pascal fName:PTR, mode:WORD
myOpen  ENDP

EVEN and ALIGN Directives
Padding for EVEN and ALIGN is now optimized.  Data segments
are padded with zeros.  Code segments are padded with special
two-byte NOP instructions where possible.  The two-byte NOP
consists of the instruction XCHG BX,BX (87 DB hexadecimal)
which is executed faster than two one-byte NOP instructions.
/B Option Ignored
The /B option is now ignored, because its effect is irrelevant,
given the new file buffering mechanism.  However, the option is
still accepted for the purposes of compatibility.
The PTR Operator
The PTR operator can be used to specify the size of a
register indirect operand for a CALL or JMP instruction.
However, the size cannot be specified with NEAR or FAR. Use
WORD or DWORD instead. (In 80386 32-bit segments, use DWORD
or FWORD.) Examples are shown below:

          ; 8086, 80826, or 80386 16-bit mode

          jmp  WORD PTR [bx]        ; Legal near jump
          call NEAR PTR [bx]        ; Illegal near call
          call DWORD PTR [bx]       ; Legal far call
          jmp  FAR PTR [bx]         ; Illegal far jump

          ; 80386 32-bit mode only

          jmp  DWORD PTR [bx]       ; Legal near jump
          call NEAR PTR [bx]        ; Illegal near call
          call FWORD PTR [bx]       ; Legal far call
          jmp  FAR PTR [bx]         ; Illegal far jump

This limitation only applies to register indirect operands.
NEAR or FAR can be applied to operands associated with
labels. Examples are shown below:

          jmp  NEAR PTR pointer[bx] ; Legal
          call FAR PTR location     ; Legal

Assembler Behavior Change
Some errors and questionable practices that were ignored by
earlier versions are now flagged as errors. As a result,
existing source code may produce errors or warnings.
The following are examples:

          - Labels defined only during pass 1 cause errors if
            used in expressions.
          - A CS ASSUME that changes from pass 1 to pass 2 causes
            an error.
          - Constants are now checked for type overflow.
          - Reserved words used as labels produce warnings.
          - The OFFSET operator used with a constant causes an error.

The STACK Combine Type
The description of the STACK combine type in Section
does not explain how multiple initialized stack segments are
combined. The total size of the stack is the total size of
all stack definitions. LINK puts initialized data for each
defined stack segment at the end of the stack. Data initialized
in the last segment linked override data initialized in
previous segments. This behavior is usually not relevant, since
most programs only define one stack of uninitialized data.
Stack data cannot be initialized with simplified segment

Clarification of Parsing Error
The following error can be difficult to interpret because of the
way the assembler parses (analyzes) source code:

A2015: Symbol already different kind: <name>

Typically, the assembler generates this error message when a
symbol is used in a way inconsistent with how it was declared: for
example, a symbol is declared as an external absolute but then used
as a local code label.  However, the assembler also generates this
error when a symbol in the second source-code field can be interpreted
as either an operation or an operand.  The following example illustrates
this problem:

SYM1    MACRO   structName, varName
varName structName      <>

field1  DB
field2  DW

SYM1    SYM2, <mylabel>

The last line of code causes error A2015 to be generated.  The
assembler first looks at the second field of the line, which
contains the symbol SYM2.  Since SYM2 is a structure, the assembler
considers SYM2 to be an operation rather than an operand, and therefore
it considers SYM1 to be a label (rather than an operation). The way
to avoid this error is simply code the instruction as:

SYM1    <SYM2>, <mylabel>

HIGH and LOW Operators
The HIGH and LOW operators work reliably only with constants
and with offsets to external symbols.  HIGH and LOW operations are
not supported for offsets to local symbols.

Mixed-Mode Programming (386 Only)
When assembling code for .386 mode, the assembler now supports direct-
addressing modes between segments with different USE sizes.  (Segments can
have the USE16 or USE32 attribute; these attributes refer to the default
size of offsets.)  Direct-addressing references to labels in other segments
are correctly resolved.  In the following example, the assembler correctly
uses a 32-bit offset to access the data at label a32:

a32     DD      ?

        assume ds:seg32
        mov     eax,a32

You can also execute a CALL or a JMP to a label in a segment with a
different USE size.  However, the label must be declared FAR, and the
CALL or JMP must not be a forward reference.  The following example
shows the correct method for executing such a CALL or JMP:

proc16  PROC    FAR
proc16  ENDP

lab16   LABEL   FAR

        call    proc16
        jmp     lab16

Additional Error Messages

19      Wrong type of register

The register specified in the operand field was incompatible with the
directive or instruction in the operation field.  For example, the following
instruction causes this error because you cannot increment the
code segment:

        inc cs

36      Extra NOP inserted

During pass 1 the assembler did not have enough information to
correctly infer the length of the encoding for the instruction.
During pass 2 the encoding was found to be shorter than the space
allocated from pass 1, so one or more NOP instructions were inserted
as padding.  It may be possible to generate a smaller amount of code
by eliminating a forward reference to a symbol.

           The Microsoft Cross-Reference Utility (CREF)

New Feature
Cross-reference listing files created with CREF now have an
additional symbol. A line number followed by + indicates
that a symbol is modified at the given line. For example:

          TST . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  134#   237    544+

The symbol TST is defined at line 134, used at line 237, and
modified at line 544.

                          The Mouse Driver

If you use the Microsoft Mouse with the Microsoft CodeView(R) debugger
you must have Version 6.0 or later of the Microsoft Mouse. If you do not, use
the version of the MOUSE.COM driver provided in this package.  Copy MOUSE.COM
to the appropriate mouse directory. When you are ready to use the mouse, type


at the DOS command level. If you want to install the mouse driver automatically
every time you reboot,  insert the "mouse" command in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file.

Note that in earlier releases of Microsoft C, both the MOUSE.SYS and the
MOUSE.COM driver were provided.  If you have been using an earlier version
of the MOUSE.SYS driver, delete the following line from your CONFIG.SYS file:


where <directory> is the directory where the earlier mouse driver resides.

                      Microsoft CodeView Debugger

New Command-Line Option
If you have an IBM Personal System/2, then you can use the /50
command-line option to start the CodeView debugger in 50-line mode.
Note that you must be in 25-line mode to effectively use either the
/43 or /50 command-line option.

CONFIG.SYS Setting for CVP
To run the protected-mode CodeView debugger (CVP.EXE), you must have
the following line in your CONFIG.SYS file:


Using the 7 Command in Protected Mode
If you are using OS/2 protected mode and have a math coprocessor, then
you need to use a patch before you can use the CVP 7 command.  To apply
the patch, use the OS2PATCH.EXE and PTRACE87.PAT files that come on the
same disk that CVP.EXE comes on.  You also need to locate the PATCH.EXE file
that comes with OS/2 and make sure that this file is in a directory listed
in your PATH environment variable.  Then follow these steps:

1) Change the current drive and directory to the root directory of the
   boot disk.  (If the boot disk is a floppy, make sure it is inserted
   in the drive you used to boot from.)

2) Give the following command line at the DOS prompt:


Note that you may need to give the complete path names for the
OS2PATCH.EXE and for the PTRACE87.PAT file.  You do not need to give
a path name for the OS2PATCH.EXE file if you have placed this file
in a directory listed in your PATH environment variable.

Using the Real-Mode Debugger in the Compatibility Box
When running the real-mode CodeView debugger in the DOS 3.x
compatibility box, start the debugger with the /S command-line
option.  Otherwise, the mouse pointer will not appear.

Using the CodeView Debugger with BIND
The real-mode CodeView debugger cannot debug bound (dual-mode)
applications.  However, the protected-mode CodeView debugger,
CVP, can debug bound applications.

Expression Evaluator for BASIC Programs
In the BASIC expression evaluator, "+" is not supported for string

Stack Trace Command
In order for the Stack Trace command (or the Calls menu) to work
reliably, you need to execute to at least the beginning of the main
function or procedure, and the current module should have full CodeView
information (a module has full CodeView information if compiled or
assembled with /Zi).

Error Messages
The error message "? cannot display" indicates that the Display
Expression command (?) has been passed a valid symbol that it
cannot display. In previous versions of the debugger, structures
could not be displayed. With current version of the debugger, only
the enums type cannot be displayed.

The error message "Expression not a memory address" occurs when
the Tracepoint command is given without a symbol that evaluates to
a single memory address.  For example, the commands "TP?1" and
"TP?a+b" each produce this error message.  The proper way to put a
tracepoint on the word at address 1 is with the command "TPW 1".

The error message "Function call before 'main'" occurs when you
attempt to evaluate a program-defined function before you have entered
the main function.  Execute to at least to the beginning of the main
function before attempting to evaluate program-defined functions.

The error message "Bad emulator info" occurs when CodeView cannot
read data from the floating-point emulator.

The error message "Floating point not loaded" has a special meaning
for CVP (in addition to the explanation given in the CodeView and
Utilities manual).  Each thread has its own floating-point emulator.
This message is issued when the current thread has not initialized
its own emulator.

Microsoft Pascal Programs
In this release, Microsoft Pascal programs cannot be debugged with
the CodeView debugger.

                             Exit Codes for Utilities

The exit codes for LINK and the utilities in the Microsoft CodeView
and Utilities manual should appear as follows:

        Code    Meaning

        0       No error.

        2       Program error--something was wrong with the commands
                or files input to the linker.

        4       System error.  The linker

                - ran out of space on output files
                - was unable to reopen the temporary file
                - experienced an internal error
                - was interrupted by the user

        Code    Meaning

        0       No error.

        2       Program error--something was wrong with the commands
                or files input to the utility.

        4       System error.  The utility ran out of memory, was
                interrupted by the user, or experienced an internal

                    Microsoft Overlay Linker (LINK)

Overlay Restrictions
You cannot use long jumps (using the longjmp library function) or indirect
calls (through a function pointer) to pass control to an overlay.  When a
function is called through a pointer, the called function must be in the same
overlay or in the root.

Changed LINK Error Messages
The explanation for fatal-error message L1008 is changed as follows: 

        The /SEGMENTS option specified a limit greater than 3072 on the
        number of segments allowed.

Error message L1009 has been changed to read as follows:

        L1009   <number> : CPARMAXALLOC : illegal value

Error message L1053 has been changed to read as follows:

        L1053   out of memory for symbol table

        The program had more symbolic information (such as public, external,
        segment, group, class, and file names) than the amount that could fit
        in available real memory.

        Try freeing memory by linking from the DOS command level instead of
        from a MAKE file or from an editor. Otherwise, combine modules or
        segments and try to eliminate as many public symbols as possible.

Warning message L4050 has been changed as follows:

        L4050   too many public symbols for sorting

        The linker uses the stack and all available memory in the
        near heap to sort public symbols for the /MAP option.  If
        the number of public symbols exceeds the space available
        for them, this warning is issued, and the symbols are not
        sorted in the map file but are listed in arbitrary order.

New LINK Error Messages
L1003   /QUICKLIB, /EXEPACK incompatible

You cannot link with both the /QU option and the /E option.

L1006   <option-text>: stack size exceeds 65535 bytes

The value given as a parameter to the /STACKSIZE option exceeds the
maximum allowed.

L1063   out of memory for CodeView information

The linker was given too many object files with debug information,
and the linker ran out of space to store it.  Reduce the number
of object files that have debug information.

L1115   /QUICKLIB, overlays incompatible

You specified overlays and used the /QUICKLIB option.
These cannot be used together.

L2013   LIDATA record too large

An LIDATA record contained more than 512 bytes.  This is
probably a compiler error.

L2024   <name>: special symbol already defined

Your program defined a symbol name that is already used by the linker
for one of its own low-level symbols.  (For example, the linker
generates special symbols used in overlay support and other operations.)
Choose another name for the symbol in order to avoid conflict.

L2025   <segmentname>: segment with > 1 class name not allowed with /INC

Your program defined a segment more than once, giving the segment
different class names.  Different class names for the same segment
are not allowed when you link with the /INCREMENTAL option.  Normally,
this error should never appear unless you are programming with MASM.
For example, if you give the two MASM statements

_BSS segment 'BSS'


_BSS segment 'DATA'

then the statements have the effect of declaring two distinct segments.
ILINK does not support this situation, so it is disallowed when the
/INCREMENTAL option is used.

L2041   stack plus data exceed 64K

The total of near data and requested stack size exceeds 64K, 
and the program will not run correctly.  Reduce the stack size.
The linker only checks for this condition if /DOSSEG
is enabled, which is done automatically in the library
startup module.

L2043   Quick Library support module missing

When creating a Quick library, you did not link with the required

L2044   <name> : symbol multiply defined, use /NOE

The linker found what it interprets as a public-symbol
redefinition, probably because you have redefined a symbol that
is defined in a library.  Relink with the /NOEXTDICTIONARY
(/NOE) option. If error L2025 results for the same symbol, then you
have a genuine symbol-redefinition error.

L4003   intersegment self-relative fixup at <offset> in segment <name>
        pos: <offset> Record type: 9C target external '<name>'

The linker found an intersegment self-relative fixup. This error
may be caused by compiling a small-model program with the /NT

L4034   more than 239 overlay segments; extra put in root

Your program designated more than the limit of 239 segments to 
go in overlays.  Starting with the 234th segment, they are assigned to 
the root (that is, the permanently resident portion of the program).

                Microsoft Library Manager (LIB)

New Option
There is a new option for LIB:  /NOIGNORECASE (abbreviated as /N).
This option tells LIB to not ignore case when comparing symbols.
names. By default, LIB ignores case.  Multiple symbols that are
the same except for case can be put in the same library.  An
example of this is: "_Open" and "_open". Normally you could not
add both these symbols to the same library.

Note that if a library is built with /NOI, the library is
internally "marked" to indicate /NOI.   All libraries built
with earlier versions of LIB are not marked.

If you combine multiple libraries, and any one of them is
marked /NOI, then /NOI is assumed for the output library.

In addition, LIB also supports the option /IGNORECASE (/I), which
is completely analogous to /NOIGNORECASE.  /I is the default. The only
reason to use it would be if you have an existing library marked /NOI
that you wanted to combine with other libraries which were not marked,
and have the output library be not marked. If you don't use
/IGNORECASE, the output is marked /NOI (see above).

Changed LIB Error Messages
Warning messages U4152, U4155, and U4157-U4159 for LIB are now
nonfatal error messages U2152, U2155, and U2157-U2159, respectively.

Warning message U4151 has been changed to read as follows:

        U4151   '<name>' : symbol defined in module <name>, redefinition ignored

New LIB Error Messages
The following new warning messages have been added for LIB:

U4155   <modulename> : module not in library

A module specified to be replaced does not already exist in the 
library.  LIB adds the module anyway.

U4157   insufficient memory, extended dictionary not created
U4158   internal error, extended dictionary not created

For the reason indicated, LIB could not create an extended
dictionary. The library is still valid, but the linker
is not able to take advantage of the extended dictionary
to speed linking. 

                Microsoft Program Maintenance Utility (MAKE)

New Error Message
U1015: <file> : error redirection failed

This error occurs if the /X option is given and error output cannot
be redirected to the given file (for example, because the file
is read-only).

Inference Rules
You cannot have inference rules in both the TOOLS.INI and the description
file that use both the same inextension and outextension.  For example, you
cannot place the following inference rule in the TOOLS.INI file:

                cl /c /Zi /Od $*.c

while also placing the following line in the description file:

                cl /Ot $*.c

However, you can define the same macro in both the TOOLS.INI and the
description file.  In such cases, the definition in the description file
takes precedence.

Backslash (\) as Continuation Character
Note that MAKE considers a backslash immediately followed by a new-line
character to be a continuation character.  When it finds this combination
in a description file, MAKE concatenates the line immediately following
the combination with the line where the combination appears.

If you define a macro that ends in a backslash, make sure that you put a
space after the terminating backslash.  For example, if you want to define
macros for the path C:\SRC\BIN and C:\SRC\LIB, you must use the format 
illustrated below:


To illustrate the problems that can result if you do not put a space before the
new-line character, assume that the macros above appear as shown below


Because a new-line character appears immediately after the backslash at the end
of the first macro, MAKE assumes that you are defining the single macro shown


            Microsoft STDERR Redirection Utility (ERROUT)

The ERROUT utility does not accept batch files. To redirect standard-error
output from a batch file, you must enter a command of the following form:

        ERROUT COMMAND /c <batchcommand> 

If no /f option is given, then ERROUT redirects standard-error output to
the standard-output device.

                        Mixed-Language Programming

Setting Up Calls to High-Level Languages
Section 6.6 of the Microsoft Mixed-Language Programming Guide gives in-
structions for setting up a call to a high-level language from assembly
language.  Before you execute a call to a BASIC, Pascal, or FORTRAN routine,
remember to declare an additional parameter if the return value is noninteger.
This additional parameter must contain the offset address of the return value,
for which you must allocate room within the stack segment (normally DGROUP,
the same as the default data segment).

                       The BIND Utility

Specifying Libraries
You need to include DOSCALLS.LIB on the BIND command line. If
DOSCALLS.LIB is not in the current directory, you must give the 
complete path name to DOSCALLS.LIB.

BIND automatically searches for API.LIB by looking in directories
listed in the LIB environment variable.  However, if API.LIB is
specified on the command line, then BIND will not check the LIB
environment variable; instead, you will need to give the complete
path name.

For example, the following command line successfully uses BIND, if
API.LIB is located in a directory listed in the LIB environment


Using BIND with Packed Files
The version of BIND released with this package does not work with
files that have been linked with the /EXEPACK linker option.

Running Bound Files with DOS 2.1
A dual-mode executable file produced with BIND can be run in both
DOS 3.x and DOS 2.x environments.  However, if you change the name
of an executable file produced by BIND, then it will not run under
DOS 2.1.

                 The Microsoft Incremental Linker (ILINK)

ILINK Fatal Error Messages

.sym seek error
.sym read error

        The .SYM file is corrupted.  Do a full link.  If the error
        persists, contact Microsoft.

.sym write error

        The disk is full or the .SYM file already exists with the
        READONLY attribute.

map for segment <name> exceeds 64K

        The symbolic information associated with the given segment
        exceeds 64K bytes, which is more than ILINK can handle.

can't ilink library <name>

        You tried to incrementally link an altered library.
        ILINK does not link .LIB files but only .OBJ files.
        Use a full link instead.

.obj close error

        The operating system returned an error when ILINK attempted
        to close one of the .OBJ files.  Do a full link.  If the error
        persists, contact Microsoft.

too many LNAMES in <modname>

        An object module has more than 255 LNAME records.

too many SEGDEFs in <modname>

        The given object module has more than 100 SEGDEF records.

too many GRPDEFs in <modname>

        The given object module has more than 10 GRPDEF records.

symbol <name> multiply defined

        The given symbol is defined more than once.


        Please report this error to Microsoft.

Out of Memory

        ILINK ran out of memory for processing the input.  If you
        are running ILINK under MAKE, try running it from the shell.
        Otherwise, do a full link.

could not run exec

        ILINK was unable to find the file EXEC.EXE, which should be
        placed somewhere in the search path or in the current

.exe file too big, change alignment

        The segment sector alignment value in the .EXE file is too
        small to express the size of one of the segments.  Do a full
        link and increase the alignment value with the /ALIGNMENT
        option to LINK.

.ilk seek error

        The .ILK file is corrupted.  Do a full link.  If the error
        persists, contact Microsoft.

Too many defined segments

        ILINK has a limit of 255 defined segments, which are segments
        defined in an object module as opposed to an executable segment.
        Reduce the number of segments if you want to use ILINK.

too many library files

        ILINK has a limit of 32 runtime libraries (.LIB files).  Reduce
        the number of libraries.

too many modules

        ILINK has a limit of 1204 modules in a program.  Reduce the
        number of modules.

.ilk write error

        The disk is full, or else ILINK cannot write to the .SYM file
        because a .SYM file currently exists and has the READONLY attribute.

file <name> does not exist

        ILINK was unable to open the given file.  The file named was
        in the file list in the .ILK file.

seek error on library

        A .LIB file was corrupted.  Do a full link and check your .LIB

library close error

        The operating system returned an error when ILINK attempted
        to close one of the .LIB files.  Do a full link.  If the error
        persists, contact Microsoft.

error closing EXE file

        The operating system returned an error when ILINK attempted
        to close the .EXE file.  Do a full link.  If the error
        persists, contact Microsoft.

Invalid module reference <module>

        The program makes a dynamic link reference to a dynamic link
        module which is not represented in the .EXE file.

could not update time on <filename>

        The operating system returned an error when ILINK attempted
        to update the time on the given file.  Possibly the file had
        the READONLY attribute set.

invalid flag <flag>
only one -e command allowed

        The ILINK command syntax is incorrect.

User Abort

        The user issued CTRL+C or CTRL+BREAK.

file <name> write protected

        The .EXE, .ILK, or .SYM file needed to be updated and has the
        READONLY attribute.  Change attribute to READWRITE.

file <name> missing

        One of the .OBJ files specified on the command line is missing.

file <name> invalid .OBJ format
file <name> has invalid <recordtype> record

        The given .OBJ file has an invalid format or one that is not
        recognized by ILINK.  This may have been caused by a compiler
        or assembler.

file <module> was not full linked

        An .OBJ file was specified as input to ILINK, which was not in
        the list of files in the original full link.

LOBYTE seg-relative fixups not supported

        This error message should occur only with MASM files.  See the
        Microsoft Macro Assembler 5.0 Programmer's Guide. This type of
        object module is not supported by ILINK.

<number> undefined symbols

        The given number of symbols were referred to in fixups but
        never publicly defined in the program.

Incremental Violations
These errors cause a full link to occur if the -e option is used and -i
is not used, else they are fatal errors:

symbol <name> deleted

        A symbol was deleted from an incrementally-linked module.

<modname> contains new SEGMENT

        A segment was added to the program.

<modname> contains changed segment <name>

        The segment contribution (code or data which the module
        contributes to a segment) changed for the given module: it
        contributed to a segment it didn't previously contribute to,
        or a contribution was removed.

<modname>'s segment <name> grew too big

        The given segment grew beyond the padding for the given module.

<modname> contains new GROUP <name>

        A new group was defined, via the GROUP directive in assembly
        language or via the /ND C compiler option.

<modname> redefines group <name> to include <name>

        The members of the given group changed.

symbol <name> changed

        The given data symbol was moved.

can't add new communal data symbol <name>

        A new communal data symbol was added as an uninitialized variable
        in C or with the COMM feature in MASM.

communal variable <name> grew too big

        The given communal variable changed size too much.

invalid symbol type for <name>

        A symbol which was previously code became data, or vice versa.

too many COMDEFS
too many EXTDEFS

        The limit on the total of COMDEF records (communal data variables)
        and EXTDEF records (external references) is 2000.

invalid CodeView information in .EXE file

        The CodeView information found is invalid.

<name> contains new Codeview symbolic info

        A module previously compiled without -Zi was compiled with -Zi.

<name> contains new linnum info

        A module previously compiled without -Zi or -Zd was compiled
        with -Zi or -Zd.

<name> contains new public CV info

        New information on public-symbol addresses was added.

invalid .exe file

        The .EXE file is invalid.  Make sure you are using an up-to-date
        linker.  If the error persists, contact Microsoft.

invalid .ilk file
.ilk read error
.ilk seek error

        The .ILK file is invalid.  Make sure you are using an up-to-date
        linker.  If the error persists, contact Microsoft.

.SYM/.ILK mismatch

        The .SYM and .ILK files are out of sync.  Make sure you are using
        an up-to-date linker.  If the error persists, contact Microsoft.

<libname> has changed

        The given library has changed.

can't link 64K-length segments

        ILINK cannot handle segments greater than 65,535 bytes long.

can't link iterated segments

        ILINK cannot handle programs linked with /EXEPACK.

Entry table expansion not implemented

        The program call tree changed in such a way that ILINK could
        not handle it.

file <name> does not exist

        The .EXE, .SYM, or .ILK files are missing.

<name> has changed

        The given library module name has changed.

ILINK Warning messages

Fixup frame relative to an (as yet) undefined symbol - assuming ok

        See documentation for LINK error messages L4001 and L4002,
        in the Microsoft CodeView and Utilities manual.

<name> contains TYPEDEFs - ignored
<name> contains BLKDEFs - ignored

        The .OBJ file contains records no longer supported by Microsoft
        language compilers.

old .EXE free information lost

        The free list in the .EXE file has been corrupted.  The free
        list keeps track of "holes" of free space in the EXE file.  These
        holes are made available when segments are moved to new locations.

file <name> has no useful contribution

        The given module makes no contribution to any segment.

Main entry point moved

        The program starting address changed.  You may want to consider
        doing a full link.

                             Microsoft Editor

Installing the Editor
The Microsoft Editor does not come with an MESETUP program. Instead,
run the setup program for the assembler. This program offers you choices
about how to set up the editor.

Keystroke Configurations
Some of the keystroke configurations listed in Table A.2 of the
Microsoft Editor User's Guide may need to be changed.

In the Quick/WordStar configuration, the Sinsert function is assigned

In the BRIEF configuration, the Plines function is assigned to CTRL+Z,
and the Refresh function is assigned to CTRL+].

In the EPSILON configuration, the Ppage function is assigned to PGDN,
and the Sdelete function is assigned to DEL and CTRL+D.

The Compile Function
The commands

        Arg streamarg Compile
        Arg textarg Compile

each use the command specified by the extmake:text switch.  The
editor does not check the extension of the file name given as an
argument, but instead uses the "text" extension.  The streamarg
or textarg replaces a %s in the command.  These commands are typically
used to invoke MAKE.

The Setfile Function
The commands that use Setfile, along with a streamarg or textarg,
accept a variety of input: either the name of a file, a file name
with a wild-card character (* or ?), the name of a directory, or the
name of a disk drive.  File names can also include environment variables,
such as $INIT.  If the streamarg or textarg is a directory name, then
the editor changes the current directory.  If the argument is a drive
name, then the editor changes the current drive.  Environment variables
are translated into directories to be searched for a file.  For example,
the following macro directs the editor to search the $INIT environment
variable in order to find the tools.ini file:

    tools.ini := Arg "$INIT:tools.ini" Setfile
    tools.ini :ctrl+j

Entering Strings in Macros
When you enter a text argument directly, no characters have special
meaning (except when the argument is interpreted as a regular
expression).  However, when you enter text as part of a macro, then
strings inside of quotes are interpreted according to the C string
format.  This format uses a backslash followed by double quotes (\")
to represent double quotes and it uses two backslashes (\\) to represent
a single backslash.  Therefore, to find the next occurrence of the string

    She wrote, "Here is a backslash: \ "

you could use the following macro definition:

    findit := Arg "She wrote, \"Here is a backslash: \\ \"" Psearch

Note that to indicate a backslash for a regular expression that is
also part of a macro definition, you must use four consecutive

Using Text Switches
The text switches extmake and readonly each take a special
kind of syntax that allows you to specify drive, file name,
base name, or file extension. The syntax consists of the


where <letters> consists of any of the following: "p" for path,
"d" for drive, "f" for file base name, or "e" for file extension.
For example, if you are editing the file c:\dir1\sample.c, and you
make the following switch assignment:

extmake:c cl /Fod:%|pfF %|dfeF

then each time you give the command <Arg><Compile>, the editor
performs the following system-level command:

cl /Fod:\dir1\sample c:sample.c

The expression "%s" is equivalent to "%|feF" except that the former
only works once, whereas the latter can appear any number of times
in the extmake switch assignment. The expression "%|F" is equivalent
to "%|dpfeF".

The Filetab Switch
The filetab switch is a numeric switch that determines how the
editor translates tabs when loading a file into memory.  The value
of the switch gives the number of spaces associated with each tab
column.  For example, the setting "filetab:4" assumes a tab column
every 4 positions on each line.  Every time the editor finds a tab
character in a file, it loads the buffer with the number of spaces
necessary to get to the next tab column.  Depending on the value of
the entab switch, the editor also uses the filetab switch to determine
how to convert spaces into tabs when writing to a file.  The default
value of filetab is 8.

Functions Callable by C Extensions
The following list summarizes functions from the standard compact-
memory-model library, which should work when called by a C-extension
module.  (The technique of programming C extensions is presented in 
Chapter 8 of the Microsoft Editor User's Guide.)  The memory model
of the extension is assumed to be /Asfu (small code pointers, far
data pointers, and stack segment unequal to data segment).  This list
uses the function categories from Chapter 4 of the Microsoft C
Optimizing Compiler Run-Time Library Reference (Version 4.0
or later.)

Buffer Manipulation: All functions can be called.

Character Classification and Conversion: All functions can be called.

Data Conversion: All functions can be called except for


Directory Control: All functions can be called except for


File Handling: All functions can be called.

Low-Level I/O Routines: All functions can be called, but write()
will not work in binary mode.

Console and Port I/O: All functions can be called except for


Searching and Sorting: All functions can be called except for


String Manipulation: All functions can be called except for


BIOS Interface: All functions can be called.

MS-DOS Interface: All functions can be called except for


Time: All functions can be called except for


Miscellaneous: All functions can be called except for


Linking Extensions in Protected Mode
To link C extension modules in protected mode, link with the
object file EXTHDRP.OBJ, instead of the real-mode header